Medium-density fibreboard is an engineered wood product made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming it into panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally denser than plywood.
Melamine is a chemical compound that has a number of industrial uses, including the production of laminates, glues, dinnerware, adhesives, molding compounds, coatings and flame retardants. Melamine is a name used both for the chemical and for the plastic made from it.
Bioethanol or Ethanol is a flammable colorless liquid. When used as an alternative fuel, ethanol is referred to simply as Bioethanol. Bioethanol is frequently used as motor fuel or as an additive in gasoline and is an option for more “renewable” energy.
Polyvinyl alcohol is used as an emulsion polymerization aid, as protective colloid, to make polyvinyl acetate dispersions. This is the largest market application in China. In Japan its major use is vinylon fiber production. Other uses of polyvinyl alcohol include:
Injection moulding of soluble containers for active release of detergents and agrichemicals
Paper adhesive with boric acid in spiral tube winding and solid board production
Thickener, modifier, in polyvinyl acetate glues
Textile sizing agent
Paper coatings, release liner
As a water-soluble film useful for packaging. An example is the envelope containing laundry detergent in “liqui-tabs”.
Ethylene Propylene Diene Rubber
A common use is in vehicles: door seals, window seals, trunk seals, and sometimes hood seals. Frequently, these seals are the source of noise due to movement of the door against the car body and the resulting friction between the EPDM rubber and the mating surface (painted sheet metal or glass). This noise can be alleviated using specialty coatings that are applied at the time of manufacture of the weather seal. Other uses in vehicles include cooling system circuit hoses where water pumps, thermostats, EGR valves, EGR coolers, heaters, oil coolers, radiators, and degas bottles are connected with EPDM hoses, as well as charge air tubing on turbocharged engines to connect the cold side of the charge air cooler (intercooler) to the intake manifold. EPDM rubber is used in seals (for example, it is used in cold-room doors since it is an insulator, as well as in the face seals of industrial respirators in automotive paint spray environments.
Terephthalic acid is one isomer of the three phthalic acids. It finds important use as a commodity chemical, principally as a starting compound for the manufacture of polyester (specifically PET), used in Intermediates, Automotive Care Products, Paints and Coatings, clothing and to make plastic bottles, it is more economical to use PTA than the alternative dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). 2. P-Xylene is the feedstock for all terephthalic acid /production/. Oxidation catalysts and conditions have been developed which give nearly quantitative oxidation of the methyl groups, leaving the benzene ring virtually untouched. These catalysts are combinations of cobalt, manganese, and bromine, or cobalt with a co-oxidant.
Styrene Butadiene Rubber latex
Styrene-Butadiene Latex is the most common type of styrene-butadiene emulsion polymer and it’s also important to note that it’s not just different from Styrene-Butadiene Rubber, it’s also different from natural latex. As for how SB Latex differs from SB Rubber, it has a greater crosslink density, and this gives it more toughness and strength compared to SB Rubber. This means that after it is stretched it will recover closer to its original shape. Another notable difference between SB Rubber and SB Latex is that SB Latex products are much more diverse. SB Latex and the process conditions allow manufacturers to create dramatically different polymer compositions with dramatically different performance results. This allows producers of SB Latex to customize products to meet a variety of requirements. One of the main uses of SB Latex is that it is used for paper coating for products like magazines, flyers, catalogues and paperboard products like folding food cartons. SB Latex enhances the pigment’s binding power, it makes the paper smoother, stiffer, glossier, brighter, and it is more water resistant. It’s also much less expensive than alternative coatings.
Acetic Acid is a clear colorless liquid with a strong odor of vinegar. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used to make other chemicals, as a food additive, and in petroleum production. Acetic acid is used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate, employed in the production of plastics; cellulose acetate, used in making photographic films and textiles; and volatile organic esters (such as ethyl and butyl acetates), widely used as solvents for resins, paints, and lacquers.
Cumene, also known as isopropylbenzene, 2-phenylpropane, or (1-methylethyl) benzene, is a colorless, volatile liquid with a gasoline-like odor. It is a natural component of coal tar and crude oil, and also can be used as a blending component in gasoline.
Cumene is used to manufacture other chemicals such as phenol, acetone, acetophenone, and methyl styrene. It is used as a thinner in paints, lacquers, and enamels. It is a component of high octane motor fuels. Cumene in used in the manufacture of rubber, iron and steel, and pulp and paper.
Vinyl Acetate copolymer
Emulsified polyvinyl acetate is used in water-based adhesives, including pastes and glues. One of the uses for emulsified polyvinyl acetate is in bookbinding. Depending upon the necessary lifetime of the book, the polyvinyl acetate chosen will either be copolymeric or homopolymeric. Polyvinyl acetate offers acceptable gap-filling capability. It may be used as a resinous component of latex paints, offering compatibility with a wide-range of other paint chemicals. Polyvinyl acetate may be used in the lamination of metal foils. Non-emulsified, or waterless, polyvinyl acetate is useful as a thermosetting adhesive.
Mono Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available. Ethylene glycol is a chemical commonly used in many commercial and industrial applications including antifreeze and coolant. Ethylene glycol helps keep your car’s engine from freezing in the winter and acts as a coolant to reduce overheating in the summer. Other important uses of ethylene glycol include heat transfer fluids used as industrial coolants for gas compressors, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems, and ice skating rinks. Ethylene glycol also is used as a raw material in the production of a wide range of products including polyester fibers for clothes, upholstery, carpet and pillows; fiberglass used in products such as jet skis, bathtubs, and bowling balls; and polyethylene terephthalate resin used in packaging film and bottles. Many of these products are energy saving and cost efficient as well as recyclable.
PET is short for polyethylene terephthalate, the chemical name for polyester. PET is a clear, strong, and lightweight plastic that is widely used for packaging foods and beverages, especially convenience-sized soft drinks, juices and water. It is a hard, stiff, strong, dimensionally stable material that absorbs very little water. It has good gas barrier properties and good chemical resistance except to alkalis (which hydrolyse it). Its crystallinity varies from amorphous to fairly high crystalline.
VAM is a key intermediate used in the making of a number of polymers and resins for adhesives, coatings, paints, films, textiles and other end products. The largest derivative is polyvinyl acetate (PVA) which is mainly used in adhesives as it has good adhesion properties to a number of substrates including paper, wood, plastic films and metals. The second largest consumer of VAM is polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) which is manufactured from PVA. Main uses for PVOH include textiles, adhesives, packaging films, thickeners and photosensitive coatings.
The major use of polyols is in polyurethane (PU) foams, flexible or rigid, which are produced by the reaction of a polyol with an isocyanate, usually toluene diisocyanate (TDI) or methyl di-p- phenylene isocyanate (MDI). Flexible foams are primarily used in cushioning applications such as furniture, bedding and car seats, and in carpet underlay. Rigid foam’s largest application is in the construction industry, where it is mostly used for insulation. Rigid foam is also used in commercial refrigeration and packaging. Smaller uses for polyether polyols include elastomers, adhesives and sealants, surface coatings and PU fibres. Flexible PU foams use higher molecular weight polyols (in a range of 2,000 to 10,000), while rigid foams use lower molecular weight polyols. PU markets are generally considered mature in North America and growing at a moderate pace. South America is considered to be a market developing more aggressively in line with growth in GDP, demographics and purchasing power.
Polyacetal is a high volume engineering plastic. It is known for its high dimensional stability, hardness and creep resistance. These qualities allow it to be used as a replacement for metal parts. Along with its copolymer resins, it is widely used as an engineering plastic across almost every industry. This includes mechanical, automotive, plumbing, hardware, and machinery parts as well as electronic and electrical components. Examples are pump and filter housings, shower heads, machinery parts such as gears, bearings, rollers, and conveyor chains, airflow valve fittings and valves, parts in the transportation industry such as fuel pump housings, cooling-fan parts, fuel caps, door handles, steering column – gear shift assemblies, and household appliances such as food mixer parts, pump and water sprinkler parts.
Styrene, also known as ethylbenzene, vinyl benzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Styrene is one of the most important monomers produced by the chemical industry today. Styrene monomer is a basic building block of the plastics industry. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers.
Acetic anhydride is mainly used for acetylation leading to commercially significant materials. Its largest application is for the conversion of cellulose to cellulose acetate, which is a component of photographic film and other coated materials, and is used in the manufacture of cigarette filters. Similarly it is used in the production of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is prepared by the acetylation of salicylic acid. It is also used as a wood preservative via autoclave impregnation to make a longerlasting timber. In starch industry, acetic anhydride is a common acetylation compound, used for the production of modified starches (E1414, E1420, E1422)